Appendix:Mathematical Symbols – Wiktionary

Source: Wiktionary, the free dictionary.


This appendix presents Mathematical Symbols. Each symbol is accompanied by its meaning in the field of mathematics (when available). Due to technical limitations, certain symbols cannot serve as titles for entries.


Symbol Meaning Symbol Meaning Symbol Meaning
+ most; positive any less; negative ± so-so
×, * or . multiplied by; times /, ÷ or : divided by
= Same; equal to equivalent to; congruent approximately equal
different than; not equal to not equivalent to
< smaller than less or equal smaller or close than
much smaller than much much smaller than is not smaller than
> bigger then Bigger or equal greater or close than
much bigger than much much bigger than is not bigger than
proportional to | | absolute value of; module infinite
% percent (percentage) per thousand per million
[ ] square brackets ( ) parentheses { } chaves
root (square root) root (cubic root) root (fourth root)
n! n fatorial log logarithm (logarithm) ^ or ** exponentiation (power)
cheese to the first power squared cheese xis ao cubo
integral double integral integral tripla
line integral surface integral integral de volume
full clockwise clockwise linear integral linear integral in a counterclockwise direction
´ derivative partial derivative
gradient productive summation
Symbol Meaning Symbol Meaning Symbol Meaning
exists does not exist or {} empty set
or contains Does not contain intersection; intersects with; intersects
contains but not equal does not contain nor is equal unity; the union of … with …
is contained; is a proper subset of is not contained; is not a subset of no information about
is a subset of is neither contained nor equal is contained but not equal
or belongs to; is element/member of; in; it’s at does not belong to; is not an element of
or there is at least one for whatever; for all; for each # cardinality
set of natural numbers set of whole numbers set of rational numbers
𝕀 set of irrational numbers set of real numbers set of complex numbers
set of quaternion numbers 𝕆 conjunto dos number eight 𝕊 set of sedenion numbers
Prime number
Symbol Meaning Symbol Meaning Symbol Meaning
e or \ any less; without
or implies; if then or if and only if from to
¬, / or ~ no (logical negation) so therefore why
reason proportion excess
|| || norm of; length of
Symbol Meaning Symbol Meaning Symbol Meaning
½ a way one third two thirds
one sixth two fifths three fifths
four fifths five sixths one about nothing
¼ a bedroom ¾ three bedrooms an eighth
three-eighths five eighths seven eighths
Pi pi (=3,141…) Phi fi, the golden number, golden ratio (=1,618…)


Symbol Meaning Symbol Meaning Symbol Meaning
sen or sin otherwise cos cosine tg or tan tangent
cotg or cot cotangent sec drying cossec or csc cosecant
° grau minutes «  second
acute angle measured angle spherical angle
straight angle |,or // parallel to perpendicular a
not parallel to don’t share divide
product wreath sine wave
or similar similar, proportional or approximately proportional to
geometric proportion homothetic not approximately

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